Thursday, July 9, 2020
Risk Analysis Assignment On Solylent Food Product (Case Study Sample) Content: Risk analysis of Solylent Food productNameInstitutionIntroductionThis paper will perform a risk analysis of a food product named Soylent. The FDA (Food and drug administration) is investigating the product, together with the US department of agriculture. The primary concern under investigation is whether the product is safe for human consumption. In that regard, the presence of an adult product called plankton is a cause of worry. First, the paper will look at the risks involved in producing the product. This will be followed by a thorough detailed analysis of the risks using a risk matrix table. Lastly, the lessons learnt from the process and the recommendations will be presented.Risks identifiedThe major risks involved in producing the product are first; the likely hood of illnesses resulting from consumption of the food product. Should illnesses occur from consumption of the product, the product will likely be recalled from the market. What is more, production of t he product is likely to be halted. Consequently, the risk will have an extreme effect on the organization should it materialize. A second risk is the risk of the product being declared illegal after investigations. This is likely to occur if the investigation by the food and drug administration together with the US department of agriculture faults the product. This risk has an extreme impact on the product since production will have to stop immediately.Risk analysis matrixA risk analysis matrix is used to breakdown the process of analysis of specific risks in project management. The matrix has one side representing the likelihood of an event to occur. The other side represents the effect of the event in an organization. A risk matrix of Soylent is presented in the figure that follows.LIKELYHOOD OF OCCURANCE ASSOCIATED RISK IMPACT ON ORGANIZATION EXTREME AVERAGE LOW VERY HIGH HIGH RISK HIGH RISK MODERATE RIS HIGH HIGH RISK MODERATE RISK MODERATE RISK LOWProduct being declare d illegal Total product failure MODERATE RISK MODERATE RISK LOW RISK VERY LOWGetting illness after eating soylent Product recalls MODEARATE RISK LOW RISK LOW RISK RISK MATRIX EXPLANATION HIGH RISK The consequences are extreme, immediate action should be taken to mitigate the risk MODEARTE RISK The consequences are great, but not to the extent of crippling the organization. Care should be taken LOW RISK The consequences are low; action can be neglected and only taken as precautionary measure. Summary and inferences from the matrixIn the matrix, the risk in producing the products was presented. Two specific risks were analyzed. The first risk was the likelihood of the product being declared illegal. The second risk was the likelihood of getting illnesses from consuming the products. As the depicted in the matrix, the likely hood of the product being declared illegal is low. On the other hand, the risk of becoming ill after eating the solvent is very low. The explanation for the state d is provided in the press release. Based on the source, preliminary research has shown that the risk of getting illness from consuming Soylent is very low. Research is being conducted only as a precautionary measure. Moreo...
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
future economic and political issues in Germany. [ CITE HISTORY.COM]. Keynes also noted that the fact that the Germans did not have any contribution to the Treaty of Versailles, claiming that the Germans would be very unsatisfied with the strict terms that theyÃ¢â¬â¢d have to abide by. Ã¢â¬Å"Keynes argued that the large amounts of war reparations that were imposed would have a secondary effect that the terms of trade (the price of exports relative to the price of imports) would turn against Germany, thereby placing a burden on the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy that came in addition to the direct payments of reparation.Ã¢â¬ [BOOK pg.362] The impact of reparations on the German Economy John Maynard Keynes clearly foresaw the future issues politically and economically in Germany. The German people did not like the reparations, which caused the Nazi party to rapidly grow in popularity in Germany over the next decade, which would over the following two decades cause an uproar and the second world war. [CITE cheaptalk]. The German economy was weak already due to the first world war, and having a harsh reparation made it very difficult to grow back the economy to itÃ¢â¬â¢s natural state (before the war). This combined with the loss of 10% of German territory, merchant ships confiscated, and other terms, easily aggravated the German people. As Keynes predicted, the Germans could not repay back their reparations, falling behind on payments, causing a devaluation of the German currency. [History.com] Ã¢â¬Å"ThatShow MoreRelatedThe Impact of the Treaty of Versailles on Germany Essay529 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Impact of the Treaty of Versailles on Germany The Treaty of Versailles was received very badly within Germany. The nation had been blamed entirely for the first world war and had been forced to pay compensation to the allies under the war guilt clause of the treaty. The war guilt clauses not only made the Germans accept responsibility for the war but also cost them dearly. 10% of German lands were lost as a result, all of Germanys overseas colonies were taken awayRead MoreThe Treaty Of Versailles And The Dawes Plan1215 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageseventually spread its poison into every aspect of human existence Ã¢â¬â into politics, social organizations and culture, and even into manÃ¢â¬â¢s conception of himselfÃ¢â¬ . World War 1 had a huge impact on the American economy. Many people do not take into consideration the events that occurred outside of America that had a big impact on its economic system. Prior to the Great Depression, two foreign affairs that contributed to Americas economic downfall are the Treaty of Versailles and the Dawes Plan. These eventsRead MoreThe Contribution Of Gustav Stresemann1114 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages1929. You have to consider the weight and impact of what he had accomplished in the years 1923-1929. He ended hyperinflation in Germany. Stresemann got Germany back into the League of Nations. Stresemann increased employment at its lowest. Appointed the Chancellor of Germany in 1923. And is known for ma ny other things. In 1921, Germany had just gotten out of World War 1. And they owed France, Britain, and the United States so much money, due to reparations. They alone had to pay 132 billion goldRead MoreHow Significant Was The Versailles Settlement Of Shaping The History Of The Weimar Republic? Essay1629 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesconditions worsened the effects of the Versailles Settlement to a lesser extent. From 1919 to 1921, the Versailles Settlement was less significant, as the instability of the German people was able to be stopped. From 1921 to 1923, the Versailles Settlement was more significant due to the inability of the Weimar Republic to recover its economy from the effects of the Settlements terms. From 1923 to 1929, the Versailles Settlement was less significant as due to the complying of terms, Germany was made moreRead MoreHow Economic Disarray and a Lack of Governmental Faith Led to the Rise of Totalitarianism in the 1930s and 1940s562 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAfter World War I and the si gning of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 the Italian and German economies plunged into turmoil. Germany inherited all war-responsibility in the form of severe monetary reparation, while Italy found itself left out of consideration for war reparation payments. For these reasons the Treaty of Versailles had a severe weakening effect on the German and Italian States after World War I, which created the need for change in those countries. As Arthur Koestler, a former memberRead MoreHow Significant Was The Treaty Of Versailles On Germany?1116 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbelieve that the Treaty had a powerful impact on Germany- it practically ruined their economy, and gave the Germans all the more reason to hate the Allies, eventually contributing to the beginning of World War 2. Although the Allies had a right to demand certain things from Germany (as they were the instigators of the war), they should have been more lenient and taken GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s poor economic situation into account. The war was a mistake on the part of the German government, but it was the people whoRead MoreIf Germany had won the First World War Essay1296 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhat if Germany had won the First World War? How would the world be different? Would the economy be the same? Would Germany be a world power? Would we have countries such as Finland or Latvia exist today? Would the United States still be a democracy? Would there have been a Second World War? The outcome of the First World War directly and indirectly effected the way we live today. This might come as a surprise to some, but Germany almost won the First World War. Germany was once very close toRead MoreWorld War I And The Atomic Bomb1742 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMAIN PARAGRAPHS 1. Introduction/briefly what it is 2. Exactly what it is (explain end of World War 2) 3. Reparations of Germany 4. Tensions with Soviet Union that led to cold war 5. Surrendering of Japan/ atomic bomb 6. Conclusion / overview of impacts PARAGRAPH 2- EXPLAIN WHAT IT WAS (WHAT IS THE POTSDAM CONFERENCE/HOW DOES IT RELATE TO WORLD WAR 2/WHAT WERE its GOALS) Ã¢â¬ ¢ World war 2 left Europe in ruins (6) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Allied powers defeated axis powers (6) o Allied- United States, Great Britain, SovietRead MoreHitler s Influence On World War II862 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesduring the interwar era caused World War II, which had enormous impacts on almost every country in the world. There are three reasons why he gained so much influence in Germany. First of all people were disappointed in the current German government and wanted a change. Secondly, Hitler and his Nazi party were similar in ideology to the majority of people and finally he was a great orator who used his similarity to the rest of the German people to help his party grow and to help himself become dictatorRead MoreThe First And Second Balkan Wars1272 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestactics used to brainwash the German people, but none of these had a greater impact than Germany s past history. Many historians believe it was events such as the treaty of Versaille and economic disaster that contributed the most to the mindset to the German people. The Nazi regime might have emerged becaus e it was a counter force to a combination of national grievances and economic crises and that it promised strength and unity. After past failures and humiliations, German people desired strength and
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
1. Assess the implementation of the time-driven ABC system at Kemps. What do you like about it? What are you less happy with, and would have done differently? One of the best aspects of the way the time-driven ABC system was put into place at Kemps was how efficiently and accurately management determined the main issues with the current cost system and responded with appropriate and relevant solutions. For example, one of the greatest problems the company was facing was that many of its operating costs were spread out equally over a customer base that was growing more diverse and demanding more personalized and varied service, effectively cutting or potentially eliminating entirely KempsÃ¢â¬â¢ profit margins for a product. Therefore,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Second, costs could be reduced by consolidating deliveries so as to eliminate the additional cost of transporting less-than-full truck loads. Additionally, packaging could be standardized so as to reduce changeover times on the production floor. Should none of these options (or any appropriate combination of them) be acceptable, Kemps may need to consider discontinuing the relationship with the customer. b. National branded chain of retail food outlets that was soliciting bids from dairy suppliers As previously mentioned, the use of activity-based costing gives Kemps an advantage when competing for customers in an ever more competitive and growing market. However, the ability to succinctly distinguish how many small changes, when taken together, can have a large impact on cost savings (and therefore profit), is necessary in order to convince customers who may not be familiar with the many benefits of ABC. Mainly, management would want to demonstrate how the cost savings that they enjoy are ultimately passed on to their customers, perhaps by showing some of the improvements that have been made to their own company as a result of implementation, specifically focusing on advancements that would have a direct impact on the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s business. c. High incidence of returns from convenience store outlets. There is no doubt that excess returns due to overstocking would be a majorShow MoreRelatedFour Mini Case Studies in Entrepreneurship4020 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesCase StudiesÃ EngineeringÃ SubjectÃ CentreÃ CaseÃ Studies:Ã FourÃ MiniÃ CaseÃ StudiesÃ inÃ EntrepreneurshipÃ FebruaryÃ 2006 AuthorshipÃ TheseÃ caseÃ studiesÃ wereÃ commissionedÃ byÃ theÃ EngineeringÃ SubjectÃ CentreÃ andÃ wereÃ writtenÃ by: Ã · LizÃ Read,Ã DevelopmentÃ ManagerÃ forÃ EnterpriseÃ andÃ EntrepreneurshipÃ (Students)Ã atÃ CoventryÃ UniversityÃ EditedÃ byÃ EngineeringÃ SubjectÃ CentreÃ staff.Ã PublishedÃ byÃ TheÃ HigherÃ EducationÃ AcademyÃ Ã Ã EngineeringÃ SubjectÃ CentreÃ ISBNÃ 978Ã 1Ã 904804Ã 43Ã 7Ã Ã ©Ã 2006Ã TheÃ HigherÃ EducationÃ AcademyÃ Ã Ã EngineeringÃ SubjectÃ CentreRead More25 Case Studies with Reaction Paper15531 Words Ã |Ã 63 PagesCASE STUDIES CASE STUDIES A Requirement for Human Behavior in Organization A Requirement for Human Behavior in Organization TABLE OF CONTENTS CASE 1: RIGHTS UP IN SMOKE Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.3 CASE 2: THE CASE OF THE SILENT MURDERERÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦6 CASE 3: UNION DISCRIMINATION? Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.7 CASE 4: ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE AT FABRIQUE DÃâ°COR Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..10 CASE 5: HORSEPLAY OR FIGHTING? Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...12 CASE 6: MILANOÃ¢â¬â¢S PIZZA Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..13 CASE 7: PLOWING THE SOUTH FORTY Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Read More Science Fiction Explored in Frankenstein, Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde and The Invisible Man2057 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesto Shelleys husband; Mary became intrigued with tales of his experiments (SMH 2/5/02). Tim Marshall (1995) gives a different perspective: just after the publication of Frankenstein the science of anatomy aroused controversy because of the infamous case of Burke and Hare [found guilty in Edinburgh of murdering at least 15 people to obtain bodies for dissection]. In 1832, the Anatomy Act granted anatomists access to unclaimed bodies from the workhouses. Before this time, dissection was a feared andRead MoreCriminological Theories On The Crime Scene And Measure Characteristics Of Crimes, Victims, And Criminals1303 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageseffect is in the case of Jason Polanco which took place in Bronx area in New York early th is year. According to New York Times, Mr. Polanco and a colleague who goes by the name Joshua Kemp decided to rob a bodega which is located in the Bronx. Based on a testimony from a police officer, Mr. Polanco who had covered his face with a mask decided to order two customers to lie down on the ground by pointing his 44 caliber revolver at them. On the contrary, his accomplice Joshua Kemp was busy shovelingRead MoreText Message Abbreviations And Language Skills Essay1601 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesstudents who texted in excess of fifty times per day displayed below average formal writing skills. PhD Nenagh Kemp from the School of Psychology located at the prestigious University of Tasmania, authored this Australian paper in an attempt to answer if texting has any correlation with writing and spelling: Text-message abbreviations and language skills in high school and university students. Dr. Kemp predicts that after controlling for age and texting experience, textism use would predict a small but potentiallyRead MoreTexting Shortcuts No Threat For Childrens Developing Language Skills1662 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestexting habits and their demographic information (De Jonge Kemp, 2012). Next participants were instructed to translate Standard English sentences from two lists into texting language; one list was typed into their phone and the other was written on paper (De Jonge Kemp, 2012). Finally the participants were instructed to complete a literacy test in order to collect data on their language, reading and spelling skills (De Jonge Kemp, 2012). A general trend showed that students were more inclinedRead MoreThe Issue Of Racial Discrimination985 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesis somehow involved. The greatest example of this deliberate denial is a case that was reviewed by the United States Supreme Court, McCleskey v. Kemp, 481 U.S. 279 (1987). The main focus of this essay is to display the significance of this particular case. The McCleskey v. Kemp case was the foundational structure for allegations of racial discrimination in the death penalty. The reason for this is because it was the first case in which the plaintiff provided a scientific study to back up their claimsRead MoreMilestones and Task Dependency947 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesprocess of a PMLC. According to Kemp, Ã¢â¬Å"Scheduling, or planning project over time, is a big job in project management. The key is to break it down into small, clearly defined steps. In building our schedules, we use several methods: iteration, definition of tasks and deliverables, and definition of larger stages and gates, also called phases and MILESTONES. Kemp (2004, p.27-28) Therefore a milestone involves several deliverables which are results of tasks. Kemp describes it as the end result ofRead MoreU.s. Practitioners And Acupuncture Practitioners1638 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswhile the other is commonly based on a more natural way of healing. Even though it took years for acupuncture to actually become acknowledged in the Unites States, it has become one of the most common healing methods that we see today. Pamela Tzu Kemp, who is a Licensed Acupuncturists and herbalist in Carlsbad California, acknowledge that she does not interfere with western medicine, she actually supports it. Many illnesses can be cured with acupuncture, but there are certain ones that require medicalRead MoreDivorce Is A Common Way Of Life1181 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages2013). Furthermore, children are sensitive to their parents getting divorce. Usually the way how they reacts are expressed in different ways that are consistent with their developmental stages (Lee Bax, 2000). Children of divorced parents have more cases of injury, asthma, headaches and speech defects than children whose parents have remained married (Children-and-Divorce.com, 2013). Studies also revealed that in 1980 - 1981 children that are in repeated divorces usually got lower results at school
Questions: 1.Discuss about the Corporate Culture and Strategy. 2.Why do you think People;s definition of culture may vary? 3.Which Definition of Culture do you agree with most and why? Answers: Structure and Strategy 1.The use of strategy has rapidly being a science of behavior in the modern world. The best strategies that are present in the theories are practiced on a mediocre basis so that the execution can be aligned in a proper manner. The ability of the managers to influence the behavior and to realize the goals of the company helps in building a competitive advantage of the organization. The capability-based strategies help an organization to compete successfully so that they can build the organizational capabilities that are hard to imitate. Mergers and acquisitions will help in realizing the values, as it depends on the integration and organizational disruption (Baker 2014). Strategies are even used in branding as the companies try not to brand their product only but also brand an entire customer experience. The delivery that is effective in brand experiencing depends on the employees that are on the frontline such as sales associates and telemarketers, who are paid less in the organization. The uses of strategies help in creating new organizational models, which helps the companies to shift their flat hierarchies and autonomous teams. The managers of most of the organizations admit to the fact that balancing the behavior of the organization with strategies is important (Boos 2014). The Boston Consulting Group helps in identifying the concepts and principles of the managerial decision-making with respect to different varieties in context of the business in the real world. It helps in ensuring the behavior of the employees of the company with the goals of the strategy. From the video, it can be seen that Morieux has stated the modern enigmas that he has encountered that the level of productivity is not good in whichever companies that he had worked for, having all the technological advancements. He also noticed that there are little engagement of the employees that were present in the organization (Fullan 2015). He went on to state that the solutions that help in tackling these issues are known as pillars according to him. The organizations can use the hard way by creating or changing the structures or the soft way, which will include the sentiments and interpersonal traits. He referred to these pillars as obsolete. He further added that if the organization wants to cater to the new requirements, then it will add a new layer of responsibility and rules. It will only increase the cost of the organization, which will have no real impact on the organization. This extra cost is compensated by the extra effort that the employees put in to the organization (Vine 2016). The structural approach according to Morieux is based on simple rules such as the reinforcement of the integrators where the integrators are the managers and they have to reinforce the powers that they have so that the employees can cooperate and work in harmony. The managers need to reward the employees that have cooperated in making the activity successful and take strict action against those who hampers the level of cooperation (Fullan 2015). 2.The advent of technology and the facilities that have been introduced due to technology like the internet and the phone calls have made everything the reach of every individual. Nothing is out of reach for the people who are living in this world as the world is shrinking and the entire world in coming within the palms of the individuals (Hirst, Thompson and Bromley 2015). Professor Ghemawat has shed light on the idea of shrinking world and the idea that the world is now a local place. According to Ghemawat, the world cannot be put into any category of being global and local. The companies that are present in this world should be able to adjust themselves with the differences and the similarities present in the world. Adaptation, aggregation and arbitrage are some of the steps that should be taken into consideration by the companies so that they are able to adjust to the changing environment of the world (Fujita and Thisse 2013). As the term adaptation suggests, it talks about adapt ing to the changes of the works. Aggregations talks about various methods by the companies to overcome the differences in the world and arbitrages is the method of exploitation of the differences in the world. The idea of Professor Ghemawat is quite different from the idea of rest of the world. When many critics think globalization has made the world flat, Professor Ghemawat has introduced the term, Globanomey (Ghemawat 2016). Professor Ghemawat has introduced the idea that the Facebook users involve 25% of the total users. Professor Ghemawat opposes the idea of globalization in every step. The people has become friends with each other due to the social networking sites. Hence, the idea that the world has become flat does not apply in this case. On the other hand, Professor Ghemawat points out that only 2% of the students move out of their country for pursuing higher education in international countries. Hence, as put forward by many critics that people are moving out of the country more due to globalization is again not supported by Professor Ghemawat. 3.After going through the concept of Professor Ghemawat and comparing the concept of other critics, it can be said that at many points the concept of globalization is not correct (Beck 2015). The most biggest example is the case of Jamaica. The travel and tourism industry of Jamaica is improving due to globalization. However, the country has been providing a extravagant image to the tourists who are coming to the country. The image that is being presented t the people of the country us not similar to the picture of the country. The main reason for taking such an action is to increase the trade and the pressure of debt. There are inequality in county and the IMF would not have been helpful but it was not fruitful as the country is dependent on the United States Reference List Baker, M.J., 2014.Marketing strategy and management. Palgrave Macmillan. Beck, U., 2015.What is globalization?. John Wiley Sons. Bs, E., 2014. Strategy shapers: A case study of leading strategy consultancies' views on strategy. Fujita, M. and Thisse, J.F., 2013.Economics of agglomeration: cities, industrial location, and globalization. Cambridge university press. Fullan, M., 2015.Freedom to change: Four strategies to put your inner drive into overdrive. John Wiley Sons. Ghemawat, P., 2016.The Laws of Globalization and Business Applications. Cambridge University Press. Hirst, P., Thompson, G. and Bromley, S., 2015.Globalization in question. John Wiley Sons. Vine, N., 2016.How Can We Make This Happen?: Successful Change Through Incentives a
Wednesday, April 22, 2020
Introduction The Caribbean rum is an alcoholic drink made from by-products of sugarcane through the process of distillation and zymolysis. After getting the distillate, the ageing process takes place in oaks or any other barrel. According to Kurlansky, the Caribbean remains the biggest producer of quality rum in the world. Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Caribbean Rum specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rum production has a long history and has undergone through several issues like colonialism of the Caribbean and globalization. This rum has diverse social and economical effects in given its deep culture amongst the Caribbean. This paper runs from history and culture, through colonialism and globalisation to economical and social effects of the Caribbean rum. History The origin of the Caribbean rum goes back to the introduction of sugarcane in the Caribbean in the 15th century by Christopher Columbus ( Coulombe 16). According to most historians, rum production was an idea of plantation slaves in Barbados who discovered that the by-products of sugarcane would be fermented into an alcoholic drink in the 17th century. Ã¢â¬Å"Many rum historians agree that, the first rum was made on the island of Barbados using molassesÃ¢â¬ (Broom 65). Later on, people came up with techniques of concentrating the alcoholic content of this rum and this included distillation. After its establishment in the Caribbean, the Caribbean rum spread to other places in Europe and this is how it found its way in America. Interestingly, the Caribbean rum was so popular that it tied continents together; it was the Ã¢â¬ËoilÃ¢â¬â¢ of the day; Ã¢â¬Å"Not until oil was any single commodity so important for world tradeÃ¢â¬ (Williams Para. 1). The Caribbean rum found its way to Colonial North America. However, the demand was increasing by the day thus pushing for establishment of distilleries in North America. The first distillery was established in the then Staten Island in 1664 before establishment of a second and a third one in Boston and Massachusetts after three years. Caribbean rum production became the most successful industry in that time in Colonial North America (Roueche 178). From Europe, the Caribbean rum crossed borders and entered Africa in late seventeenth century where it became even popular than in Europe. This popularity is attributed to the fact that African slaves in the Caribbean plantations were the inventors of this rum; therefore, to Africans, the Caribbean rum was a form of identity (Arkell 96). The Caribbean rumÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity soared and it threatened existence of other alcoholic brands world all over. For instance, production of the Caribbean rum was banned in Spain after it became a threat to SpainÃ¢â¬â¢s die sweet spirits (William 89). Advertising Looking for research paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% O FF Learn More Initially, the Caribbean rum was seen as a cheap drink associated with slaves and low class people; nevertheless, with time even the elite became consumers of this brand thus posing a big threat to other European brands, which were a reserve for the elites. In this twenty first century, the Caribbean rum still exists amongst different communities all over the world. Culture As aforementioned, the culture of the Caribbean rum is deeply rooted in different communities across the world and especially in the Caribbean islands. Rum shops litter the streets of the Caribbean islands. Given the fact that this rum was invented by Africans, the deep culture of this brand found its way to Africa. Back to the Caribbean islands, people here adored rum. Slaves would drown themselves into this brand to escape the realities of slavery that faced them everyday. Slavery was inhuman and because slaves had no way out of it, they found solace in drunkenness. This established the culture of the Caribbean rum in these islands especially in Barbados. Moreover, this alcoholic drink was thought to have medicinal value (Gonzalez Para. 6). Consequently, people consumed it in large amounts including children, women, youth and men. Therefore, the Caribbean rum became an important element in the culture of African slaves in the Caribbean. Moreover, this stuff brought people together as part of socialization. Ã¢â¬Å"Rum is at the epicentre of Caribbean culture and the economy. Practically every island organizes a tour of their rum distillery and each proclaims itself producer of the Ã¢â¬Ëbest rumÃ¢â¬â¢ in the worldÃ¢â¬ (Blue 98). This shows how this brand is deeply rooted in the hearts and culture of the Caribbean natives. People would come together to socialize and pass time whilst drinking rum. This alcoholic drink had spiritual inclinations. Ã¢â¬Å"In the Caribbean, rum was increasingly incorporated into local, syncretic spiritual traditions like VodouÃ¢â ¬ (Gonzalez Para. 9). This fact stretches to contemporary African societies where traditional brews are used in spiritual matters like chasing away ghosts among other practices. Therefore, it is logical that African slaves in the Caribbean, having discovered this rum, they would attach some spiritual importance to it because it gave them identity and value. Rorabaugh posits that African slaves were so inclined to it that they had to be removed from distilleries for they would become drunk. Slaves from Muslim countries were the preferred workers in the distilleries because Islam does not encourage alcohol consumption.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Caribbean Rum specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Colonialism The Caribbean islands went through colonialism in hands of many European powers including Spain, France, the Dutch, Denmark, Britain, and the U.S. As aforementioned, Christopher Columbus was th e first European to discover the Caribbean islands. Soon after his voyages entered the Caribbean, other voyages especially from Spain and Portugal started trickling in to establish their own colonies in these islands. Columbus introduced sugarcane in the Caribbean while slaves discovered rum later on. However, as different European powers started establishing their colonies in these islands, there were numerous changes. Actually, colonialism gave rise to the Caribbean rum. It is important to repeat at this point that African slaves invented the Caribbean rum. SpainÃ¢â¬â¢s arrival in the Caribbean islands signalled torture and death of many natives (Rouse 36). After most of the natives had died, Spain started importing African slaves and this explains how Africans found their way to the Caribbean. In the course of colonialism, numerous changes took place including different wars, which brought different impacts to the Caribbean rum as exposited below. Impact of Colonialism As afo rementioned, the Caribbean rum resulted from colonialism. Without colonialism, the story of the famous Caribbean rum may be different. Therefore, to start with, one of the effects of colonialism of the Caribbean islands was and still is the introduction of the Caribbean rum. European colonialism brought the idea of plantations and now that Columbus had introduced sugarcane, most Europeans embarked on sugar plantation in these islands. Ã¢â¬Å"By the middle of the eighteenth century, sugar was BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s largest import which made the Caribbean that much more important as a colonyÃ¢â¬ (Cross 3). This meant that production of rum persisted because it was made from this sugarcane. Even with the abolition of slave trade, sugar plantations persisted because many freed slaves were unskilled and they could only work in sugar plantations for wages (Russell Para. 7). However, at this time, rum production was still down because the British did not want to sell sugar locally; her mark et was back in Britain where sugar would be used for other purposes. Most of Caribbean population depended on agriculture and even many foreign investors invested in agriculture too. Sugar production was still controlled by colonial masters and rum production remained low for long time. Nevertheless, this was preparing the Caribbean islands for something better in future. The fact that colonialists were interested in agriculture especially sugar plantation, it enabled these islands to adopt the culture of agriculture; however, they did not know this was a blessing in disguise. Advertising Looking for research paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In 1971, Haiti became the Ã¢â¬Å"first he first Caribbean nation to gain independence from European powersÃ¢â¬ (Haggerty 45). Cuba followed in this series when it gained independence in 1902 while other nations gained their independence later on. Independence heralded a new beginning in the production of the Caribbean rum. After testing freedom, people had the freewill to produce rum. Formerly, people produced rum in small quantities for local consumption; however, as demand increased, large-scale production commenced. Eventually, globalisation took the Caribbean islands by storm and the Caribbean rum went international. Globalisation Globalisation saw the entry of the Caribbean rum into international markets. Even though consumption of the same had spread to Europe due to presence of Europeans in the Caribbean, it was not until globalisation became a vehicle of exposing this brandy to the rest of the world. The Bacardi Corporation is the first international company to be invol ved in exportation of the Caribbean rum to the rest of the world (Williams Para. 6). This corporation had its headquarters in Cuba before Fidel Castro ascended to power after which it moved to Puerto Rico. This movement proved instrumental because from Puerto Rico the Bacardi Corporation managed to infiltrate European markets in a better way. In contemporary times, this corporation operates mostly from Florida in the United States of America. This is how this brand found its way into the rest of the world in the wake of globalisation. Globalisation brought both positive and negative effects to the Caribbean rum (Klooster 56). Effects of Globalisation Exportation of the Caribbean rum came as good news the Caribbean people who had invested a lot in sugar farming. This brand took the international markets with storm cutting across the world. Today, the Caribbean rum is consumed in thousands of nations across the world thanks to globalisation and the Bacardi Corporation. Ã¢â¬Å"At the end of World War II, the US was importing more Caribbean rum than any other category of imported spirits, including whiskeyÃ¢â¬ (Frost Para. 9). This AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s import was just a small portion of imports of the Caribbean rum over the years across the world. Unfortunately, globalisation has threatened the survival and popularity of this brand, which was once the most popular brand within and outside the borders of the Caribbean island. With globalisation, production of rum in the Caribbean was and is still becoming very expensive in terms of production and raw materials. Unfortunately, most countries have subsidized sugar production forcing many Caribbean nations to give up on sugarcane farming (Pack 80). If sugarcane farming or production goes down it implies that production of this rum will go down also. Globalisation has turned the Caribbean islands into tourism sites and with many people seeing better income returns from tourism, they have abandoned sugarcane farming (H ornbeck Para 9). The Caribbean rum also faces competition from other non-Caribbean rums, which are being produced at a lower cost in other countries like Mauritius; a nation located thousands of miles from the Caribbean; the origin of rum (Cooper 39). These are some of the challenges facing the Caribbean rum as it grapples with globalisation. Nevertheless, the Caribbean people are smart people and they are turning these challenges into income generating activities. Frost notes that, Ã¢â¬Å"there is the overall theme of the Caribbean, its islands, waters and its people, and its good looking women. That helps build brands based on tourismÃ¢â¬ ¦exposing visitors to high quality and memorably-branded products helps them to take happy memories back with them and recreate them in the chill of their Northern homesÃ¢â¬ (Frost Para. 11). These foreigners are keeping up the hopes of the Caribbean rum survival. Plans are underway to import molasses to reduce production costs and this wi ll make the Caribbean rum competitive in the international market (de Kadt 38). Economical and Social effects of Caribbean Rum Economically, the Caribbean rum has been playing a vital role in the Caribbean islands. Both locally, and internationally, the Caribbean rum fetches good money for its producers. After the Bacardi Corporation started its business deals in the Caribbean, this brandy has continually fetched the Caribbean islands millions of dollars in returns. For instance, Ã¢â¬Å"in 2004, revenues from rum exports actually surpassed those of sugar for the first time in Barbadian historyÃ¢â¬ (Sanders Para. 12). This echoes how this brand is important to the economy of these islands. Part of tourist attraction in this region is their culture in rum. People from around the world visit the Caribbean. Florestal (Para. 8) remembers twenty years ago when, Ã¢â¬Å"every year, my parents returned to New York from their Haitian vacation with bags full of an innocuous-looking clear l iquidÃ¢â¬ . Nothing has really changed even after twenty years. People continue to visit the Caribbean for Ã¢â¬Å"Come lets we fire oneÃ¢â¬ (Barocas Para. 2). This means to have a drink especially in Barbados. All these people bring revenue to these nations thus improving their economy. People are making a living out of the Caribbean rum (Smith 86). In social arena, the Caribbean rum plays a crucial role. People gather to have this brand as they socialise and pass time (Boyer16). Even slaves would use it as a way of forgetting their woes. Conclusion The Caribbean rum comes from sugarcane by-products like molasses. African slaves working in sugar plantations invented the art of making rum and distillation came in later on to concentrate the alcohol content of this brandy. The culture of this brand runs deep amongst Caribbean people; actually, it has become a cultural symbol. It is important to note that the origin of this brand is colonialism after Columbus introduced sugarcan e in the Caribbean islands. Colonialism brought about large-scale production of sugarcane, which sustained production of this rum. With globalization, this brand became popular around the world; however, globalisation brought competition among other challenges that are threatening the popularity of this brand. Nevertheless, the Caribbean people are fitting this rum into globalisation to make maximum returns. Socially, this brand plays a vital key as people gather to enjoy good times together as they share the Caribbean rum. Works Cited Arkell, Julie. Ã¢â¬Å"Classic Rum.Ã¢â¬ Prion Books, 1999. Barocas, Deborah. Ã¢â¬Å"The Rum Culture of Barbados.Ã¢â¬ 2010. Web. http://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art24649.asp Blue, Anthony. Ã¢â¬Å"The Complete Book of Spirits: A Guide to Their History, Production and Enjoyment.Ã¢â¬ HarperCollins, 2004. Boyer, John. Ã¢â¬Å"Caribbean Rum: A Social and Economic History, Book Review.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Latin American Geography, 2006, 14(2): 6-15 . Broom, Dave. Ã¢â¬Å"Rum.Ã¢â¬ Abbeville Press, 2003. Cooper, Rosalind. Ã¢â¬Å"Spirits Liqueurs.Ã¢â¬ HP Books, 1982. Coulombe, Charles. Ã¢â¬Å"Rum: The Epic Story of the Drink that Changed Conquered the World.Ã¢â¬ Citadel Press, 2004. Cross, Malcolm. Ã¢â¬Å"Urbanization and Urban Growth in the CaribbeanÃ¢â¬ . New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979. de Kadt, Emanuel, (Ed.). Ã¢â¬Å"Patterns of Foreign Influence in the Caribbean.Ã¢â¬ New York: Oxford University Press, 1972 Florestal, Marjorie. Ã¢â¬Å"Rum: The Spirit of The Caribbean.Ã¢â¬ N.d. Web. http://www.tradevoices.com/Rum-Trade-Stories.html Frost, Randall. Ã¢â¬Å"The CaribbeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Rum-Soaked Brand.Ã¢â¬ 2008. Web.\ http://www.brandchannel.com/features_effect.asp?pf_id=418 Gonzalez, Edward. Ã¢â¬Å"Caribbean Rum: A Social and Economic History.Ã¢â¬ 2009. Web. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_7737/is_200912/ai_n52375631/ Haggerty, Richard A. (1989). Ã¢â¬Å"Haiti, A Country Study: French Settlemen t and SovereigntyÃ¢â¬ US Library of Congress, 1989. Web. http://countrystudies.us/haiti/7.htm Hornbeck, Fredrick. Ã¢â¬Å"CARICOM: Challenges and Opportunities for Caribbean Economic Integration.Ã¢â¬ 2008. Web. http://www.sice.oas.org/TPD/CAR_EU/Studies/CRSCARICOM_Challenges_e.pdf Klooster, Wim. Ã¢â¬Å"Illicit riches. Dutch trade in the Caribbean, 1648-1795.Ã¢â¬ New York; Oxford University Press, 1998. Kurlansky, Mark. Ã¢â¬Å"A Continent of Islands: Searching for the Caribbean Destiny.Ã¢â¬ Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1992. Pack, James. Ã¢â¬Å"NelsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Blood: The Story of Naval Rum.Ã¢â¬ Naval Institute Press, 1982. Rorabaugh, John. Ã¢â¬Å"The Alcoholic Republic.Ã¢â¬ New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. RouechÃ ©, Berton. Ã¢â¬Å"Alcohol in Human Culture.Ã¢â¬ New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963. Rouse, Irving. Ã¢â¬Å"The Tainos: Rise and Decline of the People Who Greeted Columbus.Ã¢â¬ New York: Vail-Ballou Press, 1992. Russell, Menard. Ã¢â¬Å"Review of Frederi ck H. Smith, Caribbean Rum: A Social and Economic History.Ã¢â¬ EH.Net Economic History Services, 2006. Sanders, Ronald. Ã¢â¬Å"Caribbean Rum in Grave Danger; Urgent Government Action Needed.Ã¢â¬ 2010. Web. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/columns/Sanders-Mar-28_7508032 Smith, Frederick. Ã¢â¬Å"Caribbean Rum: A Social and Economic History.Ã¢â¬ Florida: University Press of Florida, 2005. Williams, Ian. Ã¢â¬Å"Rum: A Social and Sociable History of the Real Spirit of 1776.Ã¢â¬ Nation Books, 2005. Williams Ian. Ã¢â¬Å"The Secret History of Rum.Ã¢â¬ The Nation. 2005. Web. http://www.thenation.com/article/secret-history-rum This research paper on The Caribbean Rum was written and submitted by user Hugo E. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Monday, March 16, 2020
The History Behind the Ballad of Mary Hamilton A folk ballad, possibly no older than the 18th century, tells a story about a servant or lady-in-waiting, Mary Hamilton, at the court of a Queen Mary, who had an affair with the king and was sent to the gallows for drowning her illegitimate child. The song refers to four Maries or four Marys: Mary Seaton, Mary Beaton,Ã and Mary Carmichael, plus Mary Hamilton. The Usual Interpretation The usual interpretation is that Mary Hamilton was a lady-in-waiting at the Scottish court of Mary, Queen of Scots (1542-1587) and that the affair was with the Queens second husband, Lord Darnley. Accusations of infidelity are consistent with stories of their troubled marriage. There were four Maries sent to France with the young Mary, Queen of Scots, by her mother, Mary of Guise, when the Scottish queen (whose father died when she was an infant) went to be raised there to marry the French Dauphin. But the names of two in the song are not quite accurate. The four Maries serving Mary, Queen of Scots, were Mary Beaton, Mary Seton, Mary Fleming, and Mary Livingston. And there was no story of an affair, drowning and hanging historically connected with the real four Maries. There was the 18th-century story of a Mary Hamilton, from Scotland, who had an affair with Peter the Great, and who killed her child by Peter and her two other illegitimate children. She was executed by decapitation on March 14, 1719. In a variation of that story, Peters mistress had two abortions before she drowned her third child. It is possible that an older folk song about the Stewart court was conflated with this story. Other Possibilities There are other possibilities that have been offered as roots of the story in the ballad: John Knox, in his History of the Reformation, mentions an incident of infanticide by a lady-in-waiting from France, after an affair with the apothecary of Mary, Queen of Scots. The couple was reported to have been hanged in 1563.Some have speculated that the old Queen referred to in the song was the Queen of Scots Mary of Guelders, who lived from about 1434 to 1463, and who was married to Scotlands King James II. She was regent for her son, James III, from her husbands death when a cannon exploded in 1460 to her own death in 1463. A daughter of James II and Mary of Guelders, Mary Stewart (1453 to 1488), married James Hamilton. Among her descendants was Lord Darnley, husband of Mary, Queen of Scots.More recently, Englands George IV, while still the Prince of Wales, is rumored to have had an affair with a governess of one of his sisters. The governess name? Mary Hamilton. But no story of a child, much less infanticide. Other Connections The story in the song is about unwanted pregnancy; could it be that the British birth control activist, Marie Stopes, took her pseudonym, Marie Carmichael, from this song? In Virginia Woolfs feminist text, A Room of Ones Own, she includes characters named Mary Beton, Mary Seton and Mary Carmichael. The History of the Song The Child Ballads were first published between 1882 and 1898 as The English and Scottish Popular Ballads. Francis James Child collected 28 versions of the song, which he classified as Child Ballad #173. Many refer to a Queen Marie and four other Maries, often with the names Mary Beaton, Mary Seaton, Mary Carmichael (or Michel) and the narrator, Mary Hamilton or Mary Mild, though there are some variations in the names. In various versions, she is the daughter of a knight or of the Duke of York or Argyll, or of a lord in the North or in the South or in the West. In some, only her proud mother is mentioned. Select Stanzas The first five and the last four stanzas from version 1 of Child Ballad #173: 1. Words gane to the kitchen,And words gane to the ha,That Marie Hamilton gangs wi bairnTo the hichest Stewart of a.2. Hes courted her in the kitchen,Hes courted her in the ha,Hes courted her in the laigh cellar,And that was warst of a.3. Shes tyed it in her apronAnd shes thrown it in the sea;Says, Sink ye, swim ye, bonny wee babe!Youl neer get mair o me.4. Down them cam the auld queen,Goud tassels tying her hair:O marie, wheres the bonny wee babeThat I heard greet sae sair? 5. There never was a babe intill my room,As little designs to be;It was but a touch o my sair side,Come oer my fair bodie.15. Oh little did my mother think,The day she cradled me,What lands I was to travel through,What death I was to dee.16. Oh little did my father think,The day he held up me,What lands I was to travel through,What death I was to dee.17. Last night I washd the queens feet,And gently laid her down;And a the thanks Ive gotten the nichtTo be hangd in Edinbro town!18. Last nicht there was four Maries,The nicht therel be but three;There was Marie Seton, and Marie Beton,And Marie Carmichael, and me.
Saturday, February 29, 2020
Benefits and Effectiveness of Accounting Essay The research was based on two variables these are computerized accounting systems which comprise of definitions, components of computerized accounting software and benefits and limitation of computerized system and financial reporting which also comprises of definitions of financial reports, benefits and effectiveness of accounting system used at National Water and Sewerage Corporation. The study will enable management to understand the significance of preparing quality and reliable financial reports. The study will point out weakness in the accounting system which management needs to address. The Government of Malaysia through the Department of Accountant General (MDAG) has instructed MARA to implement the Standard Accounting System for Government Agencies (SAGA). This is a total Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System, developed based on web-based application and is using an accrual basis of accounting. The SAGA financial system enables its users, particularly the government agencies to close their accounts on a daily basis, monitor their daily financial activities as well as produce standardized financial reports to the stakeholders at any place and any time. However, upon completion of the SAGA financial system analysis, MARA identifies that the system could not cater all MARA business activities. Processes such as disbursement of scholarship and loans to students and entrepreneurs are not covered by the system. As such, MARA still has to maintain its existing databases and therefore made special request to the MDAG to exclude the implementation of SAGA while awaiting MARA ICT consultantÃ¢â¬â¢s recommendations on the development of a new MARA Total Information and Financial System. As a conclusion, the SAGA financial systems could not be used by MARA on its own. The end-users in MARA need to operate both, SAGA and its own systems at the same time. This situation could lead to usersÃ¢â¬â¢ confusion if they are to use different type of system when updating certain type of financial transaction. This is because the end-user of MARA Computerized Accounting System could only utilized the SAGA Financial System just for ordinary operating expenditures whilst any disbursement of expenditure pertaining to subsidiary system, they still need to use the existing MARA Financial Systems. Consequently, internal controls and security functions may not be easily built in the systems. Concurrent use of both systems may affect job satisfaction and performance of the end-users. Introducing Computerized Accounting Information Systems in a Developing Nation: Egyptian International Motors This study aims to assess the implementation of accounting information system on a company in a developing nation. To answer this question this manuscript attempts to do the following: (1) identify the reasons for the shift to an automated system and the main goals that the company aim to achieve form this shift, (2) determine the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic decisions like choices between outsourcing versus in-house development, and ready made packages versus tailor made software, (3) describe the steps of implementation, (4) understand the reaction of the employees to the new automated system, (5) study the required changes on the organizational chart and human resources qualifications that are required, (6) recognize the problems that the company met during the process, (6) point the advantages of the shift to the automated system. A computerized accounting System provides many advantages over manual systems, for example entries do not have to be recorded in multiple ledgers so as to fulfill the cardinal rules of financial reporting.A single entry is made and the system will populate all the appropriate corresponding accounts automatically. Computerized accounting also makes it possible for people in other departments,not just accounting to enter data.It does not require avast amount of accounting knowledge for a payroll clerk to enter wages details into the accounts,a basic understanding of how to use the system is sufficient The study intends to find out the effect of a computerized accounting system on the quality of financial reports generated by an organization. To examine the effect of computerize accounting systems quality financial reporting. To determine the challenges encountere by organizations before and after implementing a computerized accounting system. To identify strategies/measures of ensuring quality financial reporting. An accounting system is part of the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s management information system therefore a good or decent accounting system must be able to produce reports like trial balance, aged debtors and aged creditors. Accounting systems must provide data that should enable the production of management accounts, statutory accounts and must also assist the managers and accountants in discharging their stewardship roles. A good system should enable the firm to produce its management reports and management accounts at short notice. This will enable the organisation to monitor performance, to take decisions quickly and to make decision based on objective and verifiable information. Audit trail is very important as it will enable auditors and senior managers to monitor transactions entered in the accounting system and this will ensure that there is information integrity. A good system should document the changes that have been made in the system, who made the changes and it should also be able to track what was changed. Compatibility With Other Programmes A strong characteristic of a good accounting system is that it must be compatible with other systems. For example, it should easily be configurable so that it can communicate with other programmes like Excel or Crystal. An accounting system should be able to export transactions and reports into Excel and it should allow data and transactions to be imported from an external source. This will lead to time savings as there will be no need to duplicate a role or process. If an accounting system does not dictate errors then it is not a good accounting package as it is failing to perform a basic functionality. An accounting package should decline to post transactions that do not balance for example the total debits should equal the total credits and if this is not the case, then the accounting system should automatically flag this error. Internal controls are the eyes and ears of the organisation and a good accounting system should embed these internal controls into the system. Internal controls enable prevention and detection of fraud and error. An accounting system should enable internal control tools like segregation of duties, reconciliations and account allocations. A good accounting system should not allow users to delete data that has been posted into the system. Computerized accounting systems provide more benefits than manual ones, allowing for more accurate calculations, in less time. Compared to manual accounting, with a computerized system errors are far less common, eliminating human error. And with accounting programs that are industry-specific, you can benefit from various preset templates for your general ledger, saving more time. You can store virtually endless information, without any trouble at all. And if you later want to review financial information from several years ago, with a computerized accounting system you can do it easily, while with a manual one you would have to sort through stacks of paper ledgers. Bottom line, both systems may be useful to some extent. But for more accurate bookkeeping and increased efficiency, a computerized accounting system seems to have more advantages. You can find several free versions online, as well as more proficient accounting software available for purchase. Search online for such accounting systems, read about their features and decide which one would be better for your particular business needs. Although they will not allow you to physically handle the ledgers, it will provide a better accounting solution. The advantages of Computerized Accounting seem to be unknown by business owners and individuals who are in doubt of purchasing Accounting Software. Accounting Software has been a trend nowadays. With the vast Computerized System Providers and wide range of versions to choose from, Accounting System has evolved to be one of the trends in information technology. Computerized Systems are designed to create more value in Financial Accounting. Value can be relayed in terms of speed, accuracy and reliability of accounting data. With Computerized System, invoices can be transmitted in an instant through email; inventories are appropriately monitored; and disbursements are tracked for payments to be done before due dates. It helps Bookkeepers to reduce manual activities. When transactions are entered in the Accounting System, automatic entries are posted to generate data needed for financial reporting. Accounting Software enables Bookkeepers and Accountants to adjust necessary accounts to reflect the correct amount of each Account. Computerized Accounting allows Accountants to trace erroneous data and entry in a creative and organized manner through the help of summaries, list of accounts and original entries. Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Jason_Tsang Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/7017983 Computers are extensively used in accounting and there are multitude of computer software for Accounting, MIS, CRM. HiTech Financial Accounting is one such software which has been customized for users in many segments in business and services. Payroll accounting was the first commercial area to become widely computerized. The calculation of wages or salaries involves a number of variables which relate to the personal details of each employee, such as gross pay or rate for the job, individual deductions, tax liabilities of the employees and so on. These facts can be retained in the computers and processed every month of produce pay slips for the employees. The computer helps to exercise the type of stock control needed by the organization. It up to dates the sales and purchases records, determines optimum re-order levels for different items and prints out the stock lists when desired. The system can be so designed that it triggers orders when stock level reaches order point for variou s material items; tests those item which are slow moving or gives list for over stock items. Programming can be done for any sales accounting system. The computer will pin point defaulting debtors, determine the right limit for credit for each debtor and maintain stores ledger. Costing and budgetary control can be affected through the computer, the computer will point out the variations from the planned performance.The computer also helps greatly in production planning and control. It is possible that scheduling of the work may become necessary due to break downs etc. A new critical path may have to be worked out. A critical path is the shortest path to be followed in production to achieve production objectives. The computer helps the management lay down this new critical path. The increasing competition and the highly demands of globalization, Malaysia government attempt for Small Medium Enterprise, SME for the development of innovative, competitive with high technology. Computerized accounting system (CAS) adoption may be decisive factor for an organization to be success and also to survive. This research project which aimed to investigate SME practice of CAS and to identify the factor affecting the adoption among SMEs in Melaka. A survey was carried out through a set of questionnaires to examine the CEO Innovativeness Factors Scale, Perceive Usefulness Factors Scale, Perceive Ease of Use Factors Scale and Business Competitiveness. The sample selected comprised of CEOs of SMEs in three districts in Melaka, namely Melaka Tengah, Alor Gajah and Jasin. The data gathered were coded and analyzed using descriptive statistics, linear regression analysis, Pearson Correlation analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).This study reveals that CAS adoption rate in SMEs in Melaka is high. Results from the analysis also shown the significant of independent variables and proved the relationships have been substantiated to the dependent variable which contribute to the usage of CAS adoption between SMEs in Melaka. The findings indicate that CEO innovativeness; perceive ease of use and business competitiveness negatively correlated to the adoption of CAS. Results reveals that only perceive usefulness are significantly positive correlated to CAS adoption. Therefore it can be deduced that adoption of CAS among SMEs in Melaka is caused by its usefulness. The findings reveal that types of business and business location influence the adoption of CAS. However, size (paid up capital, sales turnover and number of employee) do not influence the adopter. Results also indicate that CEO literacy on ICT, accounting and CAS has influence the responded CEO to adopt CAS in their business. However, the advantages by using the accounting systems software were not fully utilized by CAS adopters. http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ijbm/article/view/18273 Benefits and Effectiveness of Accounting. (2016, Dec 08).